Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar on Blood Glucose Level in Diabetic Mice

Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar on Blood Glucose Level in Diabetic Mice

This is based on Pure Research done by: Iman, Maryam; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Barahoyee, Ahmad. Pharmaceutical Sciences; Tabriz Vol.  20, Iss. ...

This is based on Pure Research done by: Iman, MaryamMoallem, Seyed AdelBarahoyee, Ahmad.Pharmaceutical Sciences; Tabriz Vol. 20, Iss. 4,  (Mar 2015): 163-168.

Background: In recent years, apple cider vinegar has been singled out as an especially helpful health remedy. It has been widely used in various dosage forms in alternative medicine for several conditions such as diabetes and obesity. In this study, the effect of apple cider vinegar on blood glucose level has been evaluated. Methods: Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozocin 40 mg/kg/day for 4 days was used to induce diabetes in mice. The mice were divided in six groups (n=10). Two concentrations of 0.16% and 1.6% of apple cider vinegar were used in drinking water for 21 days. Normal saline and acetic acid were used as negative controls and glibenclamide by IP injection (5mg/kg) as positive control. For studying any possible combination effects, 0.16% apple cider vinegar and glibenclamide were used together. Also, the effects of apple cider vinegar on glucose tolerance test and amylase serum concentration were evaluated. Results: Our results indicated that apple cider vinegar in both concentrations was not effective after 3 days of the start of its administration. However, on day 7 it reduced blood glucose levels significantly and this was maintained on days 14 and 21. Glucose tolerance test showed that apple cider vinegar was effective in lowering blood glucose level after 60 minutes of glucose administration and this was maintained up to 120 minutes. Also, in both concentrations significantly reduced serum amylase levels 21 days after the start of its administration. Conclusions: Therefore, in this study it has been revealed that apple cider vinegar has considerable reducing effect on blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. The mechanism of this action and its significance remain to be elucidated in future investigations.


Apple cider vinegar is an acidic solution produced by fermenting apples. It contains vitamins, minerals and many trace elements.1 It contains a potent supply of potassium. Potassium is essential for softtissue repair and the replacement of worn-out tissues within the body. Cider vinegar improves the health and function of the vital organs of the body by preventing excessively alkaline urine. It is a strong detoxifying and purifying agent. It breaks down fatty, mucous and phlegm deposits within the body. It also oxidizes and thins the blood, which is important in preventing high blood pressure. Cider vinegar has been found to neutralize any toxic substances that enter the body. It neutralizes harmful bacteria that may be found in certain foods, promotes digestion, assimilation and elimination.2,3 Toxic build-ups with the body can cause boils, blisters, acne, etc. Cider vinegar detoxifies and helps with the cleansing and clotting processes of the blood, by helping along the blood oxidation process. When a mixture of cider vinegar and water is taken before a meal (particularly food served in restaurants or at picnics where the preparation or duration of food leftuncovered and not refrigerated is questionable), it seems to prevent diarrhea or digestive upsets.4,5 Cider vinegar can be taken alone or used in cooking. The best method of using apple cider vinegar is in its natural liquid form. Cider vinegar is thought to be beneficial in the treatment of arthritis, asthma, nose bleeds, osteoporosis, cancer, Candida, high cholesterol, colds, constipation, muscle cramps, colitis, diabetes, diarrhea, depression, dizziness, ear discharge, eczema, fatigue, gallstones, kidney stones, hay fever, headaches, heartburn, hiccups, indigestion, insomnia, kidney and bladder problems, metabolism, nasal congestion, sore throats, stiffjoints, ulcers and weight loss.6 Some reports showed that vinegar effect the glucose and insulin responses to a sucrose or starch load. It is near 25 years that several in vivo and in vitro studies have analysed the effect of vinegar on glucose metabolism in healthy subjects and in subjects with diabetes mellitus.7,8

One of the major worldwide health problems is diabetes. Diabetes appears to be increasing in most countries, due to increasing population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Diabetes is a metabolic disease which affects not only the glucose metabolism but also lipid and protein metabolism. Diabetes can lead to increased cardiovascular mortality, nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy.9

There are mainly two types of diabetes-Type 1 and Type 2. In Type 1 diabetes, the hormone insulin is not produced while Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by a relative decreased sensitivity of target tissues to the action of this hormone and progressive impairment of insulin secretion. Approximately one T2DM patients are treated with oral hypoglycemic agents to stimulate insulin secretion.10,11 T2DM is managed through a program that consists of lifestyle modifications including appropriate diet and exercise programs and addition of oral antihyperglycemic agents.12,13Although oral hypoglycemic agents (insulin) are the mainstay of treatment of diabetes and are effective in controlling hyperglycemia, they have prominent side effects and fail to significantly alter the course of diabetic complications.

The common side effects associated with the main classes of drugs used for the treatment of T2DM are hypoglycemia, weight gain, gastrointestinal disorders, peripheral edema and liver disease.14 The present study investigates the hypoglycemic effects of apple cider vinegar and its combination effects with antihyperglycemic agents. It is thought to be beneficial for decreasing uses of antihyperglycemic agents and their side effects.

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This is based on Pure Research done by: Iman, Maryam; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Barahoyee, Ahmad. Pharmaceutical Sciences; Tabriz Vol.  20, Iss.